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GOVERNMENT

Since its democratic transition in 1990, Mongolia represents a primary example of a ‘least likely’ case of democratisation in relation to other ‘fourth wave’ democracies and in the Central Asian region itself. The political system that has been established meets most of the minimal and procedural criteria for democracy outlined by democracy analysts, has a competitive and developed political party system and has maintained peaceful and regular transfers of power over five successive parliamentary elections (1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004) and four presidential elections (1993, 1997, 2001, 2005). It is ‘least likely’ since it lacks the standard ‘prerequisites’ for democracy posited by the modernization perspective, it lacks the certain cultural factors seen to be essential for democracy, and it has established democracy among a set of comparable post-communist neighbours that have remained (or become) largely undemocratic. 

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